This unit provides an overview of current directions and issues in numeracy and mathematics education in the early years of primary school, with reference to key research papers, state, national and overseas curriculum documents. The unit offers students a research-based overview of the ways in which young children learn mathematical concepts and the ways that oral language and representations support early childhood learning. Key components of conceptual frameworks in early mathematics learning will be shared from the literature. There will be a major emphasis in this unit on understanding and developing childrens mental computation strategies; spatial awareness and visualisation; patterning abilities; and key concepts that underpin mathematical structure. There will also be consideration of the key ideas in measurement and other aspects of space. Implications for classroom practice for both pre-school and the early years of school will then be explored.