In an increasingly technological society, a strong understanding of mathematics is a major asset to an individual seeking to participate fully and meaningfully in society. This unit, following on from Exploring Mathematics 1, uses a problem solving approach and an emphasis on deep understanding of important mathematical content knowledge needed for teaching. In this case, the mathematical focus is on rational number (fractions, decimals, percentages), proportional reasoning, probability and statistics, and algebraic thinking and reasoning. There is a particular emphasis in content and assessment on “real-world” applications of mathematics. The kinds of approaches to teaching and learning advocated in Learning and Teaching Mathematics 1 and Learning and Teaching Mathematics 2 are modelled in this unit, where the desire is to increase the confidence and competence of students with mathematics.