This unit extends knowledge of the theory and pedagogy of language and literacy education in primary classrooms introduced in the first core unit. The unit will explore current literacy issues and assist students to extend their knowledge and ability to scaffold children’s learning at more complex levels. This particular focus on scaffolding literacy incorporates implementation of appropriate pedagogy based on an appreciation of the nature of language and language development, especially with diverse learners, including Indigenous students. To underpin competence in literacy, an emphasis on developing and extending children’s spoken language, use of spelling strategies, and design and production of multimodal texts using ICT will be presented. Theoretical frameworks of literacy education and quality pedagogy will be revisited to ensure students have a strong basis for planning teaching and assessment, with students’ understanding of assessment-related issues and the purposes, characteristics, and limitations of various types of assessments developed. Emphasis will be on students learning how to support children to become effective analytical and critical writers, readers, designers and producers of a variety of text types for different purposes, including picture books, children’s literature novels, factual and media texts and a variety of e-texts.