This unit is designed to explore the nature of learners and learning visual arts, music, dance and drama education (media education may be included in some states and territories). Students may choose to specialise in one arts area or work across the general domain of the arts in education. Through the exploration and analysis of historical and contemporary theoretical frameworks, students will develop an understanding of how knowledge the arts can be theoretically conceived, identified and constructed in the minds of learners in a range of contexts. Discourses representing conceptual development and paradigmatic changes in approaches to explaining the nature of developmental advance in arts education and approaches to research appropriate to arts learning will be a key focus. Participants will be required to read the research literature and respond by identifying critical issues that would warrant investigation in classroom contexts within the context of arts education frameworks while viewing education as a lifelong process.