All individuals utilise an extraordinary range of behaviours in their day-to-day life and deal with the myriad of situations that confront them. Individuals also interpret and respond to the behaviours of others. When individuals become marginalised their behaviours are often scrutinised and they become labelled as “problem individuals”, “behaviour problems” or “people with challenging behaviours”. This is particularly the case for individuals with a disability. The behaviours they display are often interpreted as deficits within the person that must be corrected. Contemporary approaches to understanding behaviour however view behaviour in a holistic framework that considers the interaction individual characteristics, environmental and social factors on an individual. It is through understanding the interaction of the various influences that professionals can arrange supports that enhance and facilitate the individual’s quality of life. This unit examines behaviour and the framework within which behaviour has been historically understood and contemporary frameworks for understanding behaviour.